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Thursday, September 20, 2018

Al-Faatihah: a re-examination (Halaqah notes)

Note:  The following is an edited version of presentation we gave on the opening chapter of the Qur'an. While it does have much the same content as our previous lectures [ for which, see Al-Faatihah: It's relevance for modern life ], more information is conveyed in this halaqah. In particular, the concepts of Tadabburdu'aa and 'ibaadah are examined and highlighted.] Please note that unless otherwise indicated, the translation has not been given.This will allow the reader to consult the translation of choice.

Introduction

"A Scripture, which We (Allah) have sent forth to you ( O Muhammad), a book of blessings, in order that you may do tadabbur regarding its signs (verses), and that people of understanding will take to heart" ( Q 38:29)

 کِتٰبٌ اَنۡزَلۡنٰہُ اِلَیۡکَ مُبٰرَکٌ لِّیَدَّبَّرُوۡۤا اٰیٰتِہٖ وَ لِیَتَذَکَّرَ اُولُوا الۡاَلۡبَابِ

This verse, sent forth to an uneducated Prophet (An Nabi Al Ummi), is given in order to provoke or inspire thinking, contemplation on a deeper level. This is a process which is called tadabbur (Yadabbaruu in the original text). The Qur'an is not simply a collection of words. The Quranic language has meanings that we are supposed to not only think about, but to consider the bigger picture.

Elsewhere, the Qur'an speaks on believers who, in whatever position they are in, upon contemplating the universal order of things, assert "Our Lord, You have not created all of this without purpose" ( Q 3:191).

This is a scripture which is actually for the acquisition and use of scientific knowledge, and just as science and medicine are fields that require deep study and effort, the Book of Allah likewise deserves that attention.

Among the ways one can study and gain from the Qur'an: [1] Read it slowly. [2] Take notes [3] When you come across texts you find appealing and useful, use those texts in your salaah. After a few days, you would have memorized it as well as the translation. [4] Read daily, even if only 10 verses a day. (Footnote 1)

Soorah Al-Faatihah





Soorah Al Faatihah is not only a prayer text, but it serves as the perfect introduction to the remaining of the Qur'anic text. Modern books have an introduction or preface, in which the author outlines his basic thesis, and the Qur'an operates here on the same format.

This Soorah is also known by titles such as The Opening of the Scripture (Faatihatul Kitaab), Sooratul Hamd (The chapter of praise), The Chapter of Prayer (Soorah As Salaat) and the Chapter of Supplication (Soorat Ad-du'aa).



[1] Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem.

It begins in God's name, not that of Muhammad, Jesus, Trinity or any other controversial name or concept. Anyone who believes in God can accept this formula as an axiomatic truth. Ar-Rahman is usually translated as "The Merciful" and "Ar-Raheem" as "The Compassionate".

Both words come from Rahema ("He was merciful") or simply Rahmah ("Mercy). The term Ar-Rahman, being upon the Fi'laan pattern in Arabic, denotes an intensive act. In other words, God is extreme in His Mercy. Ar-Raheem, upon the pattern of Fa'eel, denotes repetitiveness. In other words,Mercy is a part of God's pattern of doing things, it is among the Divine qualities, visible here as well as the world to come.

This statement, known as the Basmala, is so important because the Prophet ('alayhis salaatu was salaam) is reported to have said that anything of importance should be initiated with it, otherwise, a chance exists that it will -in fact- be deprived of Allah's mercy. 


[2] Alhamdulillaahi Rabbil 'aal ameen

'Rabb" is not simply "Lord". It is "Caretaker". That which provides for a thing till it's completion. This title shows that Allah is caring, his care is universal.  "...His throne encompasses the heavens and the earth.." ( Q 2:255) "..Our Lord, you do encompass all things in Mercy and Knowledge" ( Q 40:6)

[3] Ar Rahmanir Raheem [4] Maalike Yawmid deen.

The grammar here is a continuation of the first verse (ft.2), in other words, it is the same stream of thinking or idea, not a second sequence. We are reminded four times of Allah's mercy, yet here we are reminded of judgement day.

The Quranic pattern is to connect seemingly disparate subjects or qualities. In this case, it is done with the Divine qualities.

Another example of this is when we are told about Allah as "The forgiver of sins, one who accepts repentance, (yet) the stern in punishment.." {Q 40: 3}.

The Qur'an does this in order for the reader to have a balanced understanding of the Divine reality. You love your children , yet there are times when you have to punish them. Punishments from (good) parents are meant to rectify bad behavior and instill certain morals/lessons. Allah does the same.

[5] Iyyaka Na'budu wa Iyyaka Nas-ta'een.

Worship is only for Allah. In terms of worship, the Prophet said that calling upon Allah, even outside of formal salaah, is worship. Another hadeeth words it as the core of worship (Mukhkhul 'Ibaadah).

With this in mind, we go to the Qur'an "And when My servant asks you about Me, then I am close. I respond to the call (Daa'ee) of those who call to Me, so let them listen to ME, and believe in ME, so that perhaps they will attain maturity." { Q 2:186).

In other words, it is good for our development to call upon Allah. It is a part of character and skill building.

Notice that the Qur'an also says "And seek assistance (Ista'eenuuu) through patience and prayer, verily, Allah is with those who patiently persevere" (Q 2:153).

The same "seeking of assistance" is in both verses. God says to seek assistance through the quality or attribute of patience.

So it is not that God needs our salaat or our du'aa. Rather, we stand in need of it.

"Indeed, prayer restrains from immorality and repugnant actions..." ( Q 29:45).

[6] Ihdenas seeratal Moostaqeem

We tend to say "The straight path" is "Qur'an and Sunnah". However, if we are already "upon Qur'an and Sunnah", why do we pray for it daily?

It is true that Mufassirron have assigned particular names  to the term "straight path" ( such as the path of the companions of the Prophet), however, we propose two other avenues by which to explore this. The first being that since Al-Faatihah is an introduction to the remainder of the Quranic revelation, "The straight path" is found throughout the commands/values/religious truths in the Qur'an. Many commentators have- for example, connected the request "guide us on the straight path' to "This is the Scripture, in which there is no doubt, a Guide for those who have reverence for   Allah" ( Q 2:1).

The second avenue- one which is preferred by this writer- is that this very Soorah- Soorah Al Faatihah -  tells us what constitutes "The straight path".


[7] Seeratal Ladheena an 'amta 'alayhim, Ghayril Maghdoobe 'alayhim wa lad daaaleen"

"The straight path" is that which contains the qualities of Ni'mah (blessing, grace, happiness) and is devoid of that which brings forth Divine anger, chastisement, and punishment.

The straight path is identified with guidance, which prevents one from straying, getting lost, in life and in one's mind.

The discarding of values is an indication of being astray. Being addicted to harmful drugs is an indicator or being astray. The worship of other than Allah ('Azza wa Jall} is an indicator of being astray.

So Soorah Al-Faatihah invites us to examine our lives, our actions, to find if we are on the straight path. We are to examine all those areas of life, such as job, marriage, anything of importance.

In this regards, we should now understand the hadeeth (Abu Dawud)  in which the Prophet is reported to have said that Al-Faatihah is a healing (Shifaa). It is a healing because when pondered upon, it can bring healing to our issues in life.

We can also see why he- upon whom be peace and blessings of Allah- said that any prayer in which Al-Faatihah is excluded is "Incomplete"


Footnotes

[1] This recommendation has been given by this writer many times, based upon personal experience and benefit. The number of verses mentioned (10 verses) is not based on any text, but rather is based upon what we think everyone has the capacity to do,regardless of their unique circumstances.

[2] Here we are talking about Majroor bil Kasrah. The "bi" [arabic for "in" with" or "by"] in the Basmala, is a preposition,  influencing  the rest of the mentioned texts to end in kasra. Many do not take the Basmala formula as an actual verse of the Soorah, but rather as a headline. While we disagree with that, even if we ignore the Basmala, the text which follows it (Alhamdulillaahi Rabbil 'aal ameen) also has a preposition in it ("Li", which means "for" or "to"), thus, the explanation we have advanced would still be valid, i.e. that "Ar Rahmanir Raheem, Maalikee yawmid deen" is  a continuation of the stream or flow which preceded it.


Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Do we live according to "Allahu Akbar"

The expression "Allahu Akbar" or "God is Great" is often used and sometimes even abused. It is very important to not only recite but to live by.

This Khutbah explores mainly the importance of this expression, and serves as food for thought for the viewers.


The Real Miracle

The following video is a Friday Khutbah (Sermon) which  argues that the most powerful miracles are those produced by humans, inspired by God.


Thursday, August 16, 2018

The Prophet as a guide-audio recording

This was a Friday Khutbah delivered at the Islamic Association in May 2018. The focus is on taking inspiration and guidance from the Prophet Muhammad, Sall Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam, in times of adversity and challenge.



The attributes of a healthy Islamic community

Below is link to presentation during the month of Ramadan on the needed elements for a healthy Islamic community. Q and A follows.



Wednesday, July 11, 2018

Mental & Spiritual Heath: An Islamic Perspective

( Note: The following is an edited version of my presentation at this month's spirituality session. The participants all had-at q& a time- very insightful observations, and while initially we planned on posting the entire recording on the internet, we decided this format would be better, as it would allow for more sustained thinking and discussion, plus the core of the presentation is best preserved in this format. The wording has been edited to reflect a written article, rather than repeating verbatim the presentation. )


Questioning or having doubts on one's faith/Islam

There are a number of issues, that range from theoretical, historical, as well as practical, which can cause doubts in one's faith. It has to be mentioned that personal problems and mental stress can likewise influence this situation, but that is admittedly not always the case.

Some examples include doubts about the existence of God ( Almighty Allah), theory of evolution, role of women in the texts as well as within the community, having difficulties observing the Ramadan fast, lack of benefit from prayer ( Salaah), Muslim community politics, terrorism and so forth.

I admit these diverse subjects, and others like them, can be very complex, and simply doing internet searches will often only add to the confusion, in light of the contradictory answers out there.

On the subjects mentioned above, there are answers to be found within the Qur'an and Sunnah, but sometimes we either can't find the answers or we don't understand properly those answers.

There are some steps we have to take in order to deal with those issues which we struggle with. Those steps are

[1] Consult trusted authorities

The Qur'an says "So ask the people of knowledge, if you do not know" ( Q 16:43 among other verses). The meaning of this teaching is that one has to consult an authority, a person whose knowledge on that particular subject is trustworthy, who understands not only the subject but who understands your own unique backround and situation.

This is the way we do with our medical doctors. Usually we have our own doctors, a general practitioner or family doctor, a person we have a personal relation with, who understands all of our medical history, and who will deal with us in a trustworthy manner, who will safeguard our medical information, who will give us advice in a succinct fashion.

The same should be applied to issues of faith. The person giving the answer should know what he/she is talking about, they should understand how to give that information, they should be sure to give accurate and succinct information.

We place emphasis on having a trustworthy tie to the one you are asking information from, contrasting to simply looking on the internet for an answer. The internet is a platform which often has untrustworthy and unreliable assertions, particularly on Islamic subjects.

[2] Engage more in worship ( 'Ibaadah)

The power of prayer is universally recognized, in particular we have to emphasis communal prayer, as well as engaging more in personal invocation and supplication to Allah ('Azza wa Jall). The Prophet Muhammad     صلى الله عليه وسلم         says "The hand of Allah is over the community"(ft.1). He is also famously reported to have said that prayer in congregation is twenty-seven times more virtuous than prayer alone. We emphasis the Friday prayer (Salaat Al Jumu'ah), as well as Fajr, Maghrib and 'Ishaa prayers, because in those prayers, the Imam is reciting the Quranic texts aloud. The recitation of the Qur'an, aloud, in worship of God, has an affect. It not only touches the soul, but prayer in congregation also creates ties of brotherhood which has no replica in any other worldly example. In other words, "community" and all that goes with it really does strengthen faith.

[3] Recognize that we have limitations to our understanding and comprehension

There are things, subjects and items which we will not always be able to get a complete understanding . That does not negate it's authenticity or importance. The Qur'an describes itself as a guide for the God-aware, who have qualities which include being "those who believe in the unseen"( Q 2: 3). The "unseen" (Ghayb) include things such as angels and Jinn, and even God! It is true that popular culture depicts all of these in some fashion, but the majority of those depictions are baseless, even if those depictions enter into the religious literature. (ft.2)

(4) Invoke Allah via du'aa

One of the salient features of Ramadan for most of us is Salaat At-Taraweeh. The Imam recites long Quranic passages, and typically offers Salaat Al-Witr, which has therein the Du'aa Al-Qunoot(ft.3).

I strongly recommend increasing in making du'aa. The supplications you make don't have any particular rules ( contrasting to the more formal salaah). They can be done at any time, place, in any language or format. The Prophet Muhammad ( peace and blessings of Allah be on him) says that du'aa is the core of worship. He also says that it is the "weapon of the believer" and is actually worship in and of itself.(ft.4).

We have in the Qur'an and hadeeth literature many supplications, which we can invoke God with. Those supplications not only are useful for invoking God, but they are useful in creating good feelings and in teaching us morals to be both internalized and expressed within the public life.


Mental Health Issues

There are many factors which create mental health issues, both internal as well as being created by external factors. Indeed, even watching the news on television can create stress. Spiritual doubts can be because of this as well, however we must emphasis that that is not always the case.

The external factors can include things beyond our control, such as societal breakdown due to war and economic hardships. Personal failures, legal issues, etc.

Recently we have had the suicide of a famous celebrity chef, Anthony Bourdain. His decision to end his own life led to a flurry of discussions in the media on mental health issues, depression and suicide. Indeed, the Muslim community worldwide was shocked at the June 9th suicide at the Haram (Makkah Al-Mukarramah, the Masjid Al-Haram). Perhaps getting less attention, yet another person did the same less than a week later ( for which, see here) 

There are taboos against seeking out medical help, but those taboos are misplaced. If a person has to take certain medicines to deal with depression, to seek out therapy and the like, that is precisely what they have to do.


While the medical aspect has to be stated, we would also like to be considered the spiritual aspect. The Qur'an states "Say: it { Qur'an} is- for those with faith-  a guide and a healing" ( Q 41:44). It begins with Imaan, the spiritual foundation which recognizes the existence and power presence of Allah. If we have faith in God, that faith will be a help in whatever issues we are facing.

The ayah referenced above describes the Qur'an as "a guide" . This means that the Qur'an is a roadmap, a GPS of sorts. It does NOT tell us every single address, but it tells us in general what behavior to embrace and what behavior to   avoid. It has commands and prohibitions that are not arbitrary, they are for our long-term benefit.  In that sense, it is a "worldly guidance". But it is also a "religious guidance" in the sense that it tells us the religious truths that we are to be aware of, such as that God alone deserves worship, that the hereafter is true, that Allah has indeed sent prophets, etc.

So the worldly and the religious guidance both provide a broad protection. The follower of the Qur'an not only understands God-concept in a correct form, but he or she should also- as a consequence- have a healthy life, following what the Qur'an says.

Using the Qur'an to heal

The verse ( 41:44) also says it is a "healing" (shifaa). The process of healing happens at many levels, but I am suggesting here that the process of healing can be helped along by reciting the Qur'an, whatever Soorah or verses you know, and simply listening to its recitation. Youtube is a wonderful resource in terms of having beautiful voices reciting the words of Allah. It is true that Prophet Muhammad puts emphasis on particular texts ( such as Ayatul Kursiyy and the last three Soorahs of the Qur'an) but any other verses and texts work as well.

In dealing with depression, or with other mental stresses, please remember the Prophet Muhammad.  The Qur'an says about him

"Indeed, you have in the Messenger of God, a goodly model, for any who has hope in Allah, the final day, and contemplate on Allah much." ( Q 33:21).

In other words, if you feel all is hopeless, remember the Prophet. Allah- in essence- says "Look at MY Rasool".  The life of Muhammad was filled with turmoils. His mother died when he was six, and his father before his birth. At critical times, important people such as his wife (Khadijah) and uncle ('Abdul Muttalib) died. All of his children , with one exception (Fatimah), preceded him in death. This does not even take into consideration the various plots and enmity of the disbelievers after he began preaching the Quranic message.

Yet, he did not become bitter. It did not warp or damage him. He lived a healthy life. He forgave his enemies, and even did the funeral prayer (Salaat Al Janazah) for the leader of the hypocrites. His wives and children, the children of his followers, his community, all loved him and he them. There are so many examples of all of this, but the point is that the Prophet- by Allah's help and guidance, ultimately overcame his turmoils.

I would recommend taking a look at the chapters which make up the last section of the Qur'an. Many of them are Allah's communication to the Prophet in times of grief.

Among them are Soorah Ash sharh (chapter 94) and Ad-Duhaa ( chapter 93). Read the entirety of those short Soorahs, and try to recite them when feeling down.

Other ways to maintain mental and spiritual health include having goodly company, avoiding the company of the hateful and jealous types, community service ( such as feeding people), charity work and reconnecting to nature, such as trips to the beach, the park, cleaning one's living spaces, making them look pleasant. These are proven to be very effective.




Footnotes

(1) Another version of this hadeeth is "The hand of Allah is with the community". This version is more quoted in today's discourse, because of the presence of "with (Ma'a) " as opposed to" 'Alaa (Upon)". This writer prefers the version quoted, and pays no heed to the supposed theological problems with the term "upon". After all, the Qur'an uses the same sort of  expression "The  hand of Allah is over their hands "[Yadullahi Fawqa Aydeehim]. ( Q 48:10). None should see these terms in literal, physical fashion, so we need not be bothered with the debate over which preposition is appropriate, as both convey the same meaning, that God's help and guidance is for those who seek him.

(2) By "religious literature" we refer to some of the commentaries, particularly those penned in the middle ages, which may include fanciful legends to explain things in the Qur'an.  As a general principle, the Qur'an is very clear and does a wonderful job of self-explanation.

(3) The usage of Du'aa Qunoot varies according to the school of jurisprudence. The Shafi'ee school uses it in Fajr prayers as well as Witr prayer, but only on the last ten nights of Ramadan. The Hanafis recite it in Witr prayers, but so do silently (Sirri). The other Sunni schools recite it in Witr aloud (Jahri), and the Shiites recite Qunoot in every prayer. The word Qunoot basically means devotion and sincerity. Although tradition has ascribed the term Qunoot to a couple of beautiful Prophetic supplications, in fact any du'aa can be used, and indeed, many Imams do recite other Quranic supplications, supplications from the hadeeth literature and even of their own. All of the schools have their arguments and justifications for their practice , and- in my view- deserve respect.

(4) The hadeeth alluded to says "Du'aa is in fact worship" {Ad-du'aa u, Huwal Ibaadah).

Friday, May 18, 2018

Does Islam sanction slavery?

Introduction

There are a number of issues that are raised by detractors and sincere questioners alike, among them being the institution of slavery, in particular sex slavery. In recent years, the emergence of ISIS and BOKO HARAM in Nigeria  ( whose leadership actually declared themselves loyal to ISIS), and their actions of kidnapping  girls and reportedly selling them on the open market has led to this particular question being asked once again raised in the world stage.


The answers that are typically given are either incorrect, over-simplified, or simply misrepresented, without depth both theologically and historically.

This is understandable when we consider that as a term, slavery has been universally outlawed and not practiced on the world stage for a long time, as well as a natural aversion to images of oppression that comes from the areas where these activities are taking place.

ISIS themselves presented a long document defending their taking Yazidi and Shiite  girls as slaves, replete with references to Islamic texts. As if this was not bad enough, in more recent times migrants from a number of African countries, seeking to work in Europe, have been captured in war-torn Libya by groups who have been filmed beating, torturing, extorting for ransom and actually selling as slaves has rightly caused an outrage.

With these realities in mind, let us look at the Islamic texts and history.


Slavery as a social institution during Prophet Muhammad's time

It is undeniable that for a good portion of human history, slavery in some forms has existed. It did exist in Arabia in the time of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.  Slavery, in much of the world's history, would happen in a number of ways, such as  (1) Enemies captured during conflict. (2) Debts. (3) As punishment for certain crimes.

It is also to be noted that the Quranic revelation acknowledged the presence of this institute, and sought to deal with it in a number of ways.

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah, the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous.(Q 2:177, Saheeh International translation).

There are other verses which has a similar message of freeing of slaves as an expiation for certain incorrect actions(Ft.1), but in the above verse we see the emancipation of slaves as a demonstration of virtue. Thus, the Prophet (Sall Allahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and the early Muslims were known to purchase slaves from their owners in order to free them.

In the Prophet's final address, he says "feed and clothe them (your slaves) as you feed and clothe yourselves".



The words of the above ahadeeth, if practiced, actually put an end to slavery practically.

We do not claim that this actually happened on a massive scale after the Prophet's death. Indeed, it is our view that many of the Islamic principles enshrined in the Qur'an and Prophetic tradition were in fact never fully crystallized(2), nonetheless the point is that throughout the Qur'an itself, we find that it preaches a religion that seeks to remove harm and oppression, and it is this reason that it had such wide appeal(3). 

Slavery in Muslim history

As an institution, slavery was not eliminated, and would occur largely in the ways described in the introduction, in particular through the process of war and debt. Yet, this institution did not prevent social advancement. Slaves actually became the rulers in places such as Egypt and India.

One narration attributed to the Prophet states "If a maimed slave is appointed leader, and he conducts your affairs according to the Book of Allah, obey him.( Saheeh Muslim, 20:4533).

Slavery in Muslim jurisprudence (Fiqh)

There are a number of rules associated with slavery. Indeed, the discussions are extremely lengthy, and often uses examples that are related to owning and regulating slaves.

Slaves could negotiate their way to freedom by agreeing upon a contract, in which after payment, he was freed. A woman who gives birth to the child of the master( known as Umm Al Walad)  is automatically freed, even hitting a slave could win the latter's freedom, according to some authorities.

Slaves themselves, according to the jurists, had almost the same rights as the free. One rather pointed 
example is that of marriage. Maliki jurisprudence allows for a slave to have four wives, whereas other madhaahib allowed only two.

This sort of debate shows us that the lives of slaves in Muslim control was nothing like the chattel slavery of the Western hemisphere, to which we are so accustomed to knowing about.


Sex slavery

It is our view that this aspect is the most misunderstood aspect of this topic, in part because of the presence of the Arabic term in the Qur'an known as  Milk-ul-Yameen, which is typically translated into English  as "right hand possessed" or even "handmaid". Even among Muslims whose first language is Arabic, this term is understood to reference a woman captured and sold to a buyer.

It is sometimes said that the Prophet himself had a harem (Arabic "Hareem"), filled with captured women, to serve him at his whims. The Prophet, upon whom be peace and blessings, certainly had wives, but he lived in an extremely humble manner, so much so that the Qur'an itself mentions his wives complaining about this, and they are given a choice to divorce the Prophet or to stay with him in such a living situation ( Q 33: 28-29).

Linguistically, Milk Ul Yameen {Malakat Aymaanakum often in the Quranic phraseology} refers to those whose maintenance and livelihood are largely dependent upon one person. Perhaps a person who does not have family support, because of being a foreigner in a strange land, or financial hardships, or other reasons. Such a person in such a situation needs a solution to their problems.

The Qur'an uses the term in both intimate and non intimate contexts. It appears in the context of working in a household ( 24:58 and 33:55- the latter speaking of malakat aymaanahunna, for women) .

It seems to be a sort of relationship that is not socially seen as the same level as that of a wife, yet treated as an equal relationship in the Qur'an itself ( 4:3, 24, 25 23:6, and other places).

So, it should be seen that Milk Ul Yameen is not a slave, at least not as conceptualized according to the Qur'an, but rather a relationship that is similar to the marriage relationship.

Islam does not teach or allow rape, murder, kidnapping, exploitation and mistreatment of others. Indeed, even if one were to concede that Milk ul yameen meant a slave, the Qur'an itself says Milkulyameen is to be treated well ( Q 4:36) . One other text even says that female and male slaves alike should be sought out as marriage partners if they are found to have righteous character ( 24:32).

If people indeed transgress bounds and commit crimes against other human beings, they will be accountable before Allah for that.

Islam is a faith that has a very realistic approach to life and the issues one encounters therein. It is nice to give charity occasionally to an orphan or a widow, but the best solution is the long-term or permanent solution. Solutions are not only financial, but they also are found within emotional, physical, and family support. The Quranic term Milk Ul Yameen is one of those solutions, but in no way should it be mistaken for slavery.


Endnotes
[1] Freeing of slaves as an expiation for certain wrong acts are found in many places in the Qur'an, such as 5:89, 24:33, 58:3 and 90:13. With regards to Q 2:177, I think another application for the term "liberation of one in bondage"(Fir Riqaab) is funding an education.

[2] One important example is that of Shuraa, or consultation as necessary for governing. The Qur'an (42:38) has this as next to religious rituals, yet while we have understood the ritual of Salaah and spending in charity, yet, unfortunately, much of our history has been filled with dictators, some of whom even saw themselves as "God's shadow on Earth".

[3] Slaves counted as among the earliest followers of the Prophet, but more importantly is that the Islamic message of worship of God and brotherhood of man, as well as universal justice. The Qur'an  even says that it is necessary to stand for justice, even if it runs counter to family ( 4:135)