Today's world has largely accepted the notion that ''success" is determined by the amount of items and cash one has been able to acquire. In fact, most institutions of learning, sciences, and social building are built upon this premise. This has also infiltrated the realm of religion, the most relevant example being within the Christian community, which has a theological movement therein known as The Gospel Of Prosperity. (#1)
These assertions are not meant to convey an idea that mankind needs to become wandering ascetics, in the tradition of Buddhist monks in Thailand and other places. Indeed, if anything, the Qur'an teaches us a balanced perspective when it comes to the acquisition of material comforts. We need only quote two Quranic references:
"Say: Who has eternally forbidden (Harrama) God's pleasant (things) which He has produced for his servants, as well as that which is wholesome from His (own) provision? Say: They are for those who believe, in this life, as well as [being manifested ] specially on the Day of Resurrection. Thus, We (Allah) explain signs to a people of knowledge." ( Q 7:32)
Our Lord! Give on us that which is pleasant in this life, as well as that which is pleasant in the after-life, and protect us from the punishment of the fire ( Q 2:201).
The latter is a supplication (du'aa) to be made, invoking Allah. It also provides us with evidence of a balanced worldview advocated by Islamic teachings.
What constitutes success?
The Qur'an is very clear that there is this life as well as the life to come. They are related and- in a sense- codependent upon each other, and that connection can often create some misunderstandings in terms of how we approach and understand the Qur'an. One particular Soorah which is the victim of this is Soorah Al Qaari'ah [Chapter 101].
It does talk about the Judgement day, as does chapters which are in the same general location in the Quranic codex. Yet it also speaks of something else entirely, related yet different from the afterlife and from the day of Judgement.
Repeatedly, the Qur'an tells us of scales, by which actions will be weighed on the day of Judgement. However, it is also has impact here in this very life. Carefully read the following verses from Soorah Al-Qaari'ah.
"Therefore, those whose scale is heavy, for him is a happy existence" ( Q 101:6-7).
We understand that these scales are to be heavy with worship, charity and fasting, but we also should understand that the scales should be heavy with positive and productive initiatives. We are talking beyond simply political and economic power, rather, we are talking about things such as the cultivation of good character, deeds, knowledge, understanding, compassion and trustworthiness.
The only way the scale can be heavy is when these acts of cultivation are done on a regular basis. Allah says here in these verses that such who engage in this will be blessed with a sense of satisfaction in this life, as well as to be expected in the life to come.
This is summarized elsewhere in the Qur'an as "Alas, in the remembrance of Allah, hearts find contentment" ( Q 13:28).
In other words, recalling God's blessings to you, as well as his own attributes- in the here and now can bring forth the benefit of a happy life in the hear and now. That awareness and understanding translates practically in the cultivation of good personal ethics, actions and ultimately satisfaction.
"And those whose scales are light, then his 'refuge' is whims " ( Q 101:8-9).These two verses have to be read alongside vv.6-7 as mentioned above. These verses here show us that satisfaction has not been achieved by such folks. They are discontented, so they seek to attain contentment/happiness by making their goal or their refuge in whims. This is captured very well in the expression Fa-Ummuhu Haawiyah.(#2)
Haawiya is from Hawaa, which means whims, lusts, and the like. In other words, it is speaking to the narcissistic personalities, people whose only goals are the satisfaction of their egos [an eternal hunger, which is actually never satisfied] and the trappings of materialism and all that glitters.
"And what will teach you about [the reality of ] whims? It is [actually] a blazing fire" ( Q 101:10-11)
While it is clear that an afterlife exists, which has categories we know of as paradise ( Jannah) and Hell (Jahannam), it should also be clear that the foundations of that are manifested here in this life. The personality whose focus is only on ego and control is never secure. That personality hates and actually is likewise hated by others, yet does not care. That personality attains power and yields it in with destructive results.
The Qur'an phrases it in this fashion:
"Have you not observed the one who takes his whims [Hawaahu] as his object of worship? God has made such most astray, upon His own knowledge ( of that character's inner realities) placed a seal on his hearing, heart, and has veiled his vision..." ( Q 45:23).
In short, success is happiness, doing good, positive attitudes and inner-cultivation. If we can remember that and work on that, we will naturally fall out of the orbit of those who don't have that same interest, and, thus, be protected from their harm.
If we see the qualities of the hell-bound in our own thinking and actions, that should inspire us to BE BETTER, to aspire to change.
That can happen, with God's help as well as our own efforts ( Q 13: 11)
 The Gospel Of Prosperity is essentially a movement within American Christianity which places emphasis on material things as evidence that God has blessed you. This writer recalls attending a panel discussion at a University, in which a Pastor who follows this ideology spoke against charity! The historical development of this concept is too complex to explain in a footnote, but it is important to know that many of the famous Televangelists adhere to this thinking. For a summary of the historical development of this trend, see https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/prosperity-gospel-born-in-the-usa/.
 "Umm" can mean "mother", "source" as well as "refuge". In other words, here the Qur'an is telling us that the whole goal of those seemingly hell-bound is their Hawaa. The phraseology in Arabic is very profound, and admittedly I find it difficult to translate the same feeling into written English.